Geophysical research: article

V.I. Vettegren1,2
A.V. Ponomarev1
R.I. Mamalimov1,2
I.P. Shcherbakov2
1 Sсhmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia 2 Ioffe Physical Technical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint-Petersburg, Russia
Journal: Geophysical research
Tome: 22
Number: 4
Year: 2021
Pages: 61-72
UDK: 539.4
DOI: 10.21455/gr2021.4-4
Full text
Keywords: fractoluminescence, primary cracks, nepheline
Аnnotation: The fracture process of crystals begins from the formation of the smallest – “primary” cracks. All larger cracks are formed when these “primary” cracks unite. To register “primary” cracks that appear on the surface of a nepheline crystal at destruction by diamond microcrystals, the fractoluminescence method is used. Fractoluminescence spectrum consists of tree bands: 1.4, 1.68 and 1.98 eV. The 1.98 eV band corresponds to excited free radicals ≡Si-O●, 1.68 eV corresponds to excited Fe 3+● ions, and 1.4 eV occurs when empty traps are filled with electrons from the conduction band. These radicals, ions and traps appear at fracture of nepheline lattice cells and are located on the surface of the “primary” cracks. The time dependences of the fractoluminescence signals consist of separate signals. The duration of each signal was ≈86 ns. The interval between the signals varies from 0.1 to 1 μs. The nepheline crystal has hexagonal syngonia and six systems of dislocation slip planes. At the intersection of these planes, six barriers are formed that prevent the movement of dislocations. The breaking of each barrier causes the appearance of a “primary” crack and the formation of a maximum in the fractoluminescence signal. When six barriers are broken, clusters are formed from the same number of “primary” cracks. Therefore, fractoluminescence signals contain six maxima. At first, the largest crack appeares. Its dimensions range from ≈9 to ≈17 nm. The growth time of such crack is ≈16 ns. The remaining, smaller cracks have sizes 1.7 to 3.0 times smaller. The size distribution of cracks follows a power law with an exponent equal to 6.
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