Geophysical research: article

P.A. Kaznacheev1
D.A. Ushakov2
A.N. Kamshilin1
1 Sсhmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia 2 Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
Journal: Geophysical research
Tome: 22
Number: 4
Year: 2021
Pages: 43-60
UDK: 550.837.3 + 550.8.08 + 627.8.06
DOI: 10.21455/gr2021.4-3
Full text
Keywords: electrometry, electrical resistivity tomography, dams, diaphragm, watertight element, electrode measurements, current measurements
Аnnotation: The use of geophysical methods for geological engineering exploration of hydraulic facilities (primarily dams at the construction stage) is important for determining their physical and mechanical characteristics of the materials of structures. Deviation of characteristics of materials from design, its modification and degradation of individual elements can disrupt stable operation of facilities. Critical structural disturbances of the latter may be associated with abnormal filtration flows and may be dangerous for functioning and integrity of facilities. Malfunction of watertight element are especially dangerous. Electrical exploration (electrometric) methods of geophysics are suitable for detecting and tracking such malfunctions if there is a large contrast between resistivity of ground parts of dam and resistivity of watertight elements. This condition is fullfilled for watertight elements made of materials that are weakly conducting electric current. These elements are screens and diaphragms. For diaphragms, study by geophysical methods is more relevant than for screens, since diaphragms are located inside body of dam and direct access to them is difficult. For a dam with diaphragm, continuity of which is broken by a cutout, a geoelectric model was compiled. Configurations of electrometric setups of traditional electrode measurements (electrical resistivity tomography) and current measurements by a current gauge were determined. The problem was to detect the cutout and estimate its size. The tomography setup was located along the body of the dam on top. The current setup consisting of a mobile current electrode and the current gauge was located in water from upstream side. On the basis of numerical simulation, a distribution of electric field in the model, measurement data for the tomography setup and for the current setup were obtained. It was shown that there are anomalies directly related to the cutout. The shape, size, and magnitude of the anomalies in tomography make direct identification difficult, but can be calibrated by analyzing multiple models. In current measurements, the shape, magnitude, and size of the anomaly clearly correspond to the cutout. Dependencies of measured value on width and position of the cutout were determined. These dependencies show a possibility of technologically efficient identification of presence of the cutout and evaluation of its parameters. From comparison of electrical resistivity tomography and current measurement data, it is determined that these methods can effectively complement each other.
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