Geophysical research: article

I.P. Babayantz 1 A.A. Baryakh 2 V.O. Mikhailov 1 E.P. Timoshkina 1 M.S. Volkova 1 S.A. Khairetdinov 1
1 Schmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth, Russian Academy of Sciences 2 Mining Institute of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Journal: Geophysical research
Tome: 24
Number: 2
Year: 2023
Pages: 39-57
UDK: 550.31
DOI: 10.21455/gr2023.2-3
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Keywords: satellite radar interferometry, persistent scatterer method, monitoring, potash mines, Berezniki, sink-holes.
Аnnotation: We present results of processing satellite radar images acquired by the TerraSAR-X satellite using persistent scatterer method to analyze the process of the Earth's surface subsidence over the potash mines in Berezniki city, Perm region. A sequence of processing procedures in the GAMMA Software package (Gamma Remote Sensing AG, Switzerland) is presented, which showed good results in the conditions of this territory. A comparison is made with the results obtained by summation of differential interferograms. When summing, in contrast to the persistent scatterer method, no analysis of time shifts is carried out. The noisy time series obtained by summing are not rejected, so the displacement maps cover the study area more evenly. In the persistent scatterer method, the time series are analyzed using a range of criteria, so the estimates of subsidence rates are determined more reliably. In areas where the results are obtained by summation and the persistent scatterer method, the subsidence rates are in good agreement. The persistent scatterer method has made it possible to estimate displacements in isolated areas separated by vast incoherent forest regions on which interferograms lose their coherence. At the same time, a new subsidence area was identified with an average rate of subvertical displacements up to 75 mm/year, and in some areas up to 100 mm/year, which, according to data for 2020 and 2018, was not detected. The subsidence here needs to be clarified based on the images of subsequent years or by ground methods. The time series also show the deceleration of subsidence in spring on persistent scatterers located on buildings and infrastructure. We associate the total spring deceleration of subsidence by 3–5 cm not with underground, but with seasonal factors, specifically with the heating of buildings in the spring. Other reasons are also possible, but the main thing is that in areas with a moderate subsidence rate, this effect can lead to some reduction in the estimate of the average subsidence rate. A detailed study of the time series of subsidence allows one to identify areas requiring special attention. Most of the subsidence occurs more or less evenly, in a significant part of the territory the rate of subsidence in 2021 has decreased. This indicates the effectiveness of the measures taken to protect the ground infrastructure. Within the urban area the acceleration of subsidence was found only at the beginning of Lenin Avenue. SAR interferometry is an effective tool for studying subsidence processes in Berezniki city. This method significantly complements ground geodetic work, since it provides data on vast areas that cannot be covered by detailed ground measurements. In addition, part of the closed territories becomes dangerous for ground works, so there is no alternative to satellite technologies.
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